Structured cabling is basically a well-planned system that systematically lays out the cable management necessary for communication. Structured cabling was introduced in 1990’s and before that there were propriety cabling systems based on each renders separate requirements. Any major new overhaul of the cabling would often require a completely new cabling system which was very expensive. Moreover being vendor specific cabling system, the customer would often lock himself using the same vendors cabling components and did not had any flexibility to mix and match other vendor components. Structured cabling brought a standard which is almost followed by all major cabling and Communication Companies around the world. Structured cabling has several components or subsystems that includes data cabling, fiber optic installation, voice cabling, video, CCTV and access control system. Structured cabling consists of eight major standardized subsystems:
1. Entrance Facility: This is basically the demarc point bear the external communications enter the facility.
2. Equipment room or Data Center (DC) – this area serves as the top level hub of the communication system and may further link to higher level corporate network and business system tiers. Often, telephone equipment or data-networking equipment such as routers, switches, and hubs are located there
3. Telecommunications Rooms (TR) – This area houses horizontal and backbone cable terminations and distribution switching.
4. Horizontal Cabling – Horizontal cabling, is the cabling that extends from telecommunications rooms to the work area and terminates in telecommunications outlets (information
outlets or wall plates). This is routed via trays, conduits and J-Hooks). This is typically the office work area having desktops, Printers and other communication devices typically present in the office Zone. When using Fiber cable, Multimode fiber optic is most often used for Horizontal Cabling.
5. Backbone or Vertical Cabling: Backbone cabling is also sometimes called vertical cabling and is necessary to connect entrance facilities, equipment rooms, and telecommunications
rooms. This can use either Copper or Fiber cable to connect Cabling from Entrance facility to the Telecommunications rooms. For high-speed data applications, the total maximum backbone distance should not exceed 90 meters over copper wiring. When using Fiber cable, Single mode fiber optic is most often used for Backbone Cabling .
6.Production or work area: The work area is where the horizontal cable terminates at the wall outlet. This is basically the production area and has communication components including manufacturing equipment ports, production printers, wireless access points and more.